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While luminescence is the emission of light from a solid when excited by an external energy source, cathodoluminescence (CL) is the term used when the energy source is high-energy electrons. Although you may not be familiar with the term CL, you have undoubtedly seen it. For many, you see CL when viewing a display (monitor or television) that uses a cathode ray tube (electron gun) to produce light from a phosphor screen or the green viewing screen of a transmission electron microscope.
Many different materials exhibit CL, including phosphors, semiconductors, ceramics, geological minerals, gemstones, organic compounds, and (some) metallic structures for nanophotonic applications. Analysis of the emitted light can reveal important structural and functional properties about a sample that you cannot often achieve by other methods.
A meeting of optical emission spectroscopies and electron microscopy
Cathodoluminescence microscopy is the term used to describe the analysis of light emitted from a sample in an electron microscope; the light may be in the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared wavelength portions of the electromagnetic spectrum.
In an electron microscope, you can attain spatially resolved information (images or maps) by scanning a sub-nm diameter electron beam across the surface of a sample. By collecting and analyzing the CL signal in an electron microscope, this powerful technique combines the functional optical information of luminescence spectroscopies with the high spatial resolution of electron microscopy. This makes CL an attractive technique for a wide variety of applications and research, especially in the fields of optics research, materials science, and geology.
For more information on CL please visit www.WhatisCL.info, an educational site.
- Cathodoluminescence Explained. Episode 5: CL Data Analysis
- Cathodoluminescence Explained. Episode 4: Improving spatial, spectral, and angular resolutions
- Cathodoluminescence Explained. Episode 3: Analysis Modes for Geoscience Applications
- Cathodoluminescence Explained. Episode 2: Understanding Micro-LED Arrays
- Monarc CL System and the Analysis of microLEDs
- Cathodoluminescence Explained. Episode 1: An Introduction
- Monarc CL Detector: Polarization-Filtered CL
- New CL Modes of Operations for Analysis with Monarc
- Monarc CL Detector: Up to 5x Higher Throughput
- Monarc CL Detector: WARCL
- Monarc CL Detector: Wavelength Spectrum Imaging
- Nanocathodoluminescence reveals the optical properties of III-nitride light emitting diodes
- Surface plasmon resonance modes
- Cathodoluminescence spectrum-imaging of a gallium arsenide (GaAs) nanowire
- Cathodoluminescence spectrum imaging of polycrystalline diamond
- Cathodoluminescence image of paint pigment
- Correlating microstructure with luminescence properties at the nanoscale
- Dislocation density analysis in semiconductors
- Revealing the distribution of organic materials in the SEM
- Collection of polished zircon grains
- Shale of various orogeny
- Sandstone (quartz arenite)
- Mili-electron volt energy resolution
- Analyzing the active region of a commercial InGaN LED grown on silicon substrate: Correlating luminescence with microstructure
- Cathodoluminescence and EELS analysis of plasmonic nanoparticles
- Cathodoluminescence analysis of plasmonic nanoparticles
- Cathodoluminescence analysis on GaN/AlN nanowires
High-speed, hyperspectral (spectrum) imaging for all with the Monarc detector
Investigating the optical properties of nanophotonic materials far below the diffraction limit
Complete understanding of light emission with nanoscale spatial resolution
Revealing the spatial distribution of phases in perovskite solar cells for the development of high efficiency and stable devices
A new role for cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and imaging as an analytical tool to support the development of pharmaceutical products
High spatial resolution cathodoluminescence
An example of why it is so important to correlate the structural and optical properties of semiconductor nanorods directly
Nano-cathodoluminescence reveals the effect of indium segregation on the optical properties of nitride semiconductor nanorods
Cathodoluminescence from insulators, metals, and plasmonics
Mapping the electronic bandgap of semiconductor compounds with milli-electron volt accuracy
Nano-cathodoluminescence enables the design of light-emitting diodes with higher efficiencies
A nanoscale cathodoluminescence study of nitride semiconductor nanowires